Every year I take some time to jot down the trends I will be watching in the augmented reality space. These are the 22 AR trends I will be keeping an eye on for 2022.
☕️ Grab a cup of coffee and get comfy, this is a long read!
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#1 Metaverse remains at peak hype as the next iteration of the Internet feels so close but is actually much further away
2022 will be another big year for the “”metaverse””. The buzzword of 2021 will continue its reign at the Peak of Inflated Expectations in the Gartner Hype Cycle. For many, the vision of this next iteration of the Internet feels just within reach but we will soon find out that the metaverse is more mirage than miracle as the closer we think we are getting to it, the more we will realize that there is a still a ways to go before we hit our final destination. That is not to say that the individual technologies which make up the metaverse, such as AR, are at the same point in the cycle. But rather that the grander vision of the metaverse will soon move into the Trough of Disillusionment or break out into its own Hype Cycle completely just like the Internet of Things (IoT) in 2016.
The metaverse is defined differently by different people but for me, the metaverse is an aha moment. It is a realization by industry that the next wave of computing is comprised of a stack of emerging technologies (including blockchain, AI, IoT, AR and VR) that will all work together to create a fundamental shift in our relationship with technology. This great virtual awakening was brought on by massive digital transformation fueled by the global pandemic which necessitated a lot of organizations to expedite their use of virtual technologies to survive which in turn gave them a solid foundation to see what’s next.
This year I expect to see much of the same metaverse activity we saw in 2021. More brands will spend money in the metaverse such as buying land in virtual worlds and minting branded NFTs. New job postings for metaverse positions will be created and filled to devise and execute metaverse strategies. And a wealth of launches and investment announcemets will come from organizations that position themselves as a metaverse company.
#2 The smartphone continues to become an even more powerful augmented reality machine with advancements in chips, displays and connectivity
I say this every year but it is because it is true, the smartphone continues to become an even more powerful augmented reality machine thanks to advancements in chips, cameras, displays and connectivity.
This year we can expect a new A16 chip from Apple with faster processing and high performing machine learning, foldable displays from Samsung and possibly Google which increase the FOV for AR experiences, and a huge focus on more powerful connectivity using 5G C-Band and WiFi 6E which will bring faster wireless speeds and lower latency.
While the bigger bells and whistles will be featured in the newer flagship phones, it will also be important to keep an eye on the features rolled out for new lower cost models. It is expected that these more affordable options will start to tout the big hardware features flagship phones debuted the previous year which will bring faster processing and 5G to more users. This is important for AR as high performing devices at a lower cost will provide an opportunity for AR to be experienced by an even wider audience.
While 2022 will certainly be a year filled with news and launches around AR headworn devices, the smartphone is still where the biggest opportunity is for consumer augmented reality.
#3 Early consumer smartglasses reinforce the need for smartphones rather than attempt to replace them
As new consumer smartglasses debut or launch this year, it will be clear that the smartphone will not be replaced by AR glasses but rather reinforced as a device critical to our daily digital lives. AR glasses which rely on the smartphone makes sense as offloading compute and processing from the glasses takes care of issues with battery, heat and form factor. From an OEM perspective, making glasses more of an accessory, like a smartwatch, also strengthens smartphone sales and unlocks a brand new reason for consumers to upgrade to the latest device.
But don’t expect to see just one type of smartglasses hit the market for consumers this year. Our near future will be filled with a myriad of connected eyewear which are all optimizing for different use cases with different capabilities including video glasses that offer us a larger monitor to watch video to glasses with sensors that can augment your space. While the specs for each of these glasses will differ, the one common element will be a reliance on the smartphone.
In addition to powering glasses, we will also see the smartphone used as a necessary companion for AR and VR headsets allowing more family and friends to join in on the fun. We are already seeing this today with the Quest Casting feature which lets non-Quest users watch what you are doing in VR or in apps like Acron: Attack of the Squirrels which enables VR and mobile users to play the game together. As there is typically only one VR headset per household, the smartphone makes the VR experience less lonely in enabling non-headset users to play along or be a spectator.
#4 Tech giants ready VR devices which double as AR headsets as the next big consumer device
If you have been reading my posts for the past couple of years you know that I am extremely bullish on mixed reality headsets which enable both VR and video passthrough AR. I’ve been hooked on video passthrough AR ever since my very first demos with Vrvana and Sulon’s Cortex back in 2015 (fun fact: these were both Canadian startups). Last year, one of my trends proposed that we would see a mixed reality headset introduced to the consumer market and I was somewhat correct. In 2021, Meta updated the Quest 2 with an experimental passthrough API and startup, Lynx, successfully raised funds on Kickstarter for its affordable MR device, Lynx R-1 which is expected to ship this year.
2022 will see most of the major tech giants get ready to debut a consumer mixed reality headset capable of VR and video passthrough AR. Expect to learn more about the launch plans and specs on Meta’s Project Cambria and Google’s Project Iris and possibly confirmation of similar devices from Microsoft, Samsung and Apple. VR devices have paved the way for mixed reality headsets with advancements made in SLAM for inside out tracking, the development of the supply chain for this new device category and a consumer market now more educated on this device type. When you combine this with retina display technology, foveated rendering using eye-tracking, and WiFi 6E, which offers increased speed and lower latency, the right ingredients are here to enable a consumer MR device.
While the early adopter in me is still hopeful to have a MR headset under my tree by end of this year, I will temper my enthusiasm and expect this year to be one filled with details, confirmation and early access for select developers who will be creating content for a 2023/2024 launch.
#5 Next-gen optical see-through AR glasses make their way to the enterprise to offer an even greater leap towards the future of work
While optical see-through glasses are not yet ready for mass mainstream adoption, they are finding success in the enterprise. 2022 will be a big year for AR glasses in the enterprise as next generation devices are readied and even made available to enable the future of work.
The much anticipated Magic Leap 2 is expected to launch this year. Twice as powerful as the first generation, Magic Leap 2 also features a greatly expanded vertical FOV, 18 built-in cameras and sensors to enhance real-world tracking and dynamic dimming to make it possible to see the color black and view 3D content in brighter environments. The tethered device also has a sleeker and more wearable form factor.
2022 is also when we may learn more about Microsoft’s third-generation enterprise mixed reality headset, HoloLens. While Microsoft has not announced a release date the rumor is that this device will launch in 2024. In an interview with the Wall Street Journal, Microsoft’s head of Mixed Reality, Alex Kipman stated that this next generation device would “”not just be an incremental improvement but a transformative leap forward”. Kipman indicated that Microsoft was focusing on three areas of improvement including immersion, comfort and value. Despite recent rumors in Feb of 2022 suggesting Microsoft may be putting the HoloLens 3 on ice, Microsoft spokesperson Frank Shaw denied that the HoloLens is dead, calling it a “critical part of [the company’s] plans for emerging categories like mixed reality and the metaverse.” and that “[they] remain committed to HoloLens and future HoloLens development.”
#6 Spatial audio becomes the default listening experience creating the necessary foundation for its use in AR
Immersive experiences can not be fully immersive without being multi-sensory. While the main focus for augmented reality to date has been on visuals, the opportunity to elevate AR experiences by using more of our senses is right around the corner. And it will start with audio.
We saw significant traction in spatial audio last year with Apple devices, such as the new AirPods Pro and AirPods Max, feature spatial audio with dynamic head tracking and content partners like Netflix, Spotify and Apple Music supporting this listening experience. This year, Google will also begin supporting full head tracking for spatial audio on Android which will further cement spatial audio as the new default audio experience for music and entertainment.
W3C, Dolby and High Fidelity all joined Apple last year in providing spatial audio APIs for developers to use. I expect in 2022 we will see a continued focus on development tools to equip developers with what they need to add spatial audio to their AR experiences. And more experiences make use of these tools once both Android and iOS users can make use of it. We may also see next-gen hardware solution further personalize the audio experience, making the spatial audio listening experience feel even more real.
#7 AR and VR finally get the connectivity it needs but newer devices will be needed to support it
2021 saw all three networks in the USA achieve nationwide 5G coverage and all of marquee smartphones launched last year boasted 5G support. But while we saw major headway with 5G, we were still waiting for the right flavor of connectivity to really unlock the faster speeds and lower latencies needed to take AR and VR to new heights.
This is where the C-Band 5G networks come in to play. The long anticipated C-Band has been delayed in the USA for a variety of reasons but the good news is that AT&T and Verizon just recently turned this new frequency on. The C-Band has already been in use in other areas of the world and is one of the most popular 5G bands. Here in the USA, the C-Band rollout will be in waves, starting with major markets before making its way across the country. While this initial C-Band implementation is expected to deliver a markedly improved network performance, the frequencies which will deliver even greater speeds are not expected to be cleared until the end of 2023.
Like 5G C-Band, Wi-Fi 6E promises faster wireless speeds and lower latencies in addition to less signal interference for networked devices which creates a more stable and reliable connection. The opening of the 6GHz band is the biggest spectrum addition to Wi-Fi since 1989. The 6GHz band allows for internet speeds of greater than 1Gbps, increased spectrum means lower latency, and WiFi 6E is expected to provide faster connectivity without any bandwidth drop due to other devices also in use.
Both 5G C-Band and WiFi-6E will require users to have devices that support these new connectivity option. Expect this to be one of the main reasons touted to upgrade your smartphone, headsets, routers and other smart things this year.
Platforms and Tools
#8 WebAR content development will be in high demand this year driven by a need to spatialize 2D websites and usher in a brand new spatial web
Browser-based augmented reality content has been growing steadily for the past couple of years but development of web-based AR content will be in even higher demand this year. This will be driven by a desire to join a significant number of WebAR examples in-market from blue-chip brands who are already leveraging this powerful yet frictionless technology to engage users and meet business objectives. It will also be driven by new metaverse / web3 strategies which are centered around the browser. This demand will be met by development platforms, such as 8th Wall, which offer a robust toolset to create interactive, cross-platform AR-enabled websites and a growing developer and designer ecosystem with the skills and experience to create meaningful content.
When it comes to AR on the web, there are two opportunities. One is the spatialization of 2D websites where 3D/AR web content is used alongside video, photos, GIFs and text as a new and powerful media format. The other is ushering in the spatial web with the development of 3D/AR-first websites, such as virtual worlds and spaces, which will eventually be connected to create a brand new web experience. The latter plays a major role in the metaverse but both are massive owned opportunities for brands and organizations today.
The demand for WebAR content will in turn increase demand for WebAR developers and designers and this year we will see this ecosystem expand. We will also continue to see advancements from the major development platforms which will equip these developers with new tools to push the boundaries of web-based AR. This may also include tools to increase distribution and discovery such as PWAs and content hubs.
#9 Cross-platform development tools enable immersive content to be built once and deployed across smartphones, computers and headsets
With headset adoption on the rise, a new AR/VR headset expected to hit the mainstream soon, and computers and smartphones continuing to become more powerful AR machines, developers have more devices than ever to reach and engage users with their AR content. But developing the same content for various platforms and their respective operating systems can be a significant development undertaking. As such, developers will be looking for cross-platform solutions and tools that enable them to build once and deploy everywhere.
The web is best suited to handle this cross-platform need with its responsive nature. Late last year, 8th Wall rebuilt its engine and debuted its Metaversal Deployment ushering in the new responsive web. With 8th Wall, developers can create a WebAR experience once and deploy them to smartphones and Microsoft HoloLens as AR, desktop and laptop computers as 3D, and Meta Quest as VR. 8th Wall’s platform identifies the device at runtime, spatializes the 2D UI and generates an environment where necessary, and maps the inputs available on the device you are on to provide the right interaction.
I expect this year we will see developers look to platforms that offer cross-platform content creation, especially to reach users across smartphones and computers. We will also see new types of content launched that make use of these various device categories including multi-player content that allows users on different devices to play together.
#10 Developers and creators get access to more advanced tools to create complex and contextual AR experiences that take AR to the next level
This year AR content will be taken to a whole new level and it will be made possible by new development tools which will enable developers and creators to create complex and contextual AR experiences. Platforms will equip developers and creators with advanced tools such as spatial maps and anchors, semantic segmentation, and real-time APIs to create experiences that better use the environment, objects and people in the AR scene.
This next-generation AR content is a fundamental shift for AR content, moving from using any surface and any face to using this specific place, this specific thing and this specific face. The result is AR content that is much more personal and has a greater connection to the physical world making AR feel more real. It will also unlock shared, persistent experiences for users to make AR less lonely and anchored to spaces, places and things enhancing our experience of the real world.
#11 More capture stages, advancements in software, and solutions aimed at the mainstream set volumetric video up for its best year yet
Volumetric video is a powerful immersive content type which can be used in a variety of places including augmented reality. Last year we saw the number of volumetric capture stages worldwide grow, new volumetric video solutions launch, such as livestream and real-time holograms from 8i, and applications, like Volu from Volograms, aim to democratize the creation of holograms to the masses using the smartphone camera.
I expect that 2022 will see continued growth in these areas with more capture stages appearing around the world, advancements in capture hardware which enabling more portable setup, new features around editing and playback, and a distinct focus on bringing volumetric video into the mainstream whether through studios or by making use of the smartphone camera and LiDAR sensors.
In addition, as the global pandemic subsides, we should also expect a major increase in commercial use of volumetric capture stages as the entertainment and advertising industries return to normal and look to create content for campaigns.
#12 Platform players focus on creating value and nurturing success for developers and creators in addition to competitive toolsets
Creators and developers are at the heart of the AR ecosystem. As the demand for AR rises, so too does the opportunities for creators and developers. With a variety of platforms now available for this community it has increasingly become important for major players in the space to focus as much on the growth, health and overall success of its developer and creator community as it is to provide quality tools and support to enable AR content creation.
2022 will be a major year for creating and nurturing creator and developer value. Keep an eye out this year for programs that help developers and creators find business, direct to creator monetization tools and other ways to help AR creators and developers thrive.
#13 Display ads enter the next dimension with new formats that immediately engage consumers with personal and meaningful brand experiences
A sea change is occurring for digital advertising. Advertisers are facing the end of the third-party cookies and changes in apps and social ad networks are making it harder to identify and target consumers. Meanwhile, consumers are suffering from ad fatigue and are demanding new ways to meaningfully engage with brands. AR is intrinsically personal, making use of the consumer’s space or face, and offers an interactive memorable branded experience consumers can spend significant time in.
Marketers and brands have been using social AR and WebAR to drive results across the marketing funnel for a number of years now and 2022 will continue to see this on the rise. But this year will also introduce a new opportunity for advertisers with an embeddable AR ad format which was recently launched from 8th Wall and is currently available via Ericsson Emodo’s publisher network. Embeddable AR ads immediately engage users by placing this interactive AR content inside the ad unit itself rather than needing to link out to a dedicated WebAR destination. While the main feature of embeddable AR ads is the augmented reality experience, these ads, like Google’s Swirl format, are also capable of embedding 3D experiences in the ad unit which can also engage users in a new and meaningful experience.
#14 The rise of always-on connected packaging creates a new relationship between users and products where AR is an expected added value
In my 2021 trends post I proposed that 2021 would be “”the year of the QR code”” and indeed it was. Driven by the continued pandemic, QR codes have become a necessity in our everyday lives whether this is replacing paper menus to access them in a touch-less manner or to show proof of our vaccination status to enter a venue. In 2021, we also saw a number of brands take advantage of WebAR campaigns triggered by QR codes on packaging including specially marked Pepsi cans which led to a Superbowl LV campaign featuring The Weeknd, QR codes on select Amazon boxes which led to a Taos WebAR driving game and codes on Molson Coors products which linked to a number of sports-related WebAR portal experiences—just to name a few.
While we will continue to see more on-pack AR marketing from brands this year, I expect the big change will be the rise of always-on connected packaging. This shift will make the QR to AR experience a core staple for products which, when scanned, will unlock a revolving series of AR content available at all times. This consistent offering will, in turn, establish a powerful new relationship between consumer and product where consumers will begin to expect an AR companion as part of any product experience.
#15 Live broadcast and connected TV use AR to bring the flat screen experience into the metaverse
With a growing number of virtual worlds and AR experiences engaging consumers, broadcast and connected television players are in need of new ways to connect to help them compete for our attention.
In 2022 we will see two major opportunities at play, both which create a bridge for television to the metaverse through the use of augmented realty.
Live broadcast events will dive deeper into the use of immersive video, often called broadcast AR, to enhance award shows, sporting events and other viewing experiences into extraordinary experiences. The special effects will only be able to viewed on TV but the experience in watching will feel much like the augmented reality experiences becoming more widely available outside of broadcast.
Both broadcast and connected TV will also prioritize companion AR experiences with ads and programming to bring the content viewers. are watching into their homes. This will be facilitated by QR codes on screen or in-app downloads both which link to immersive content that make the viewer a more active participant in the content often taking them deeper into the storytelling. These AR experiences not only present a new opportunity for those in television to attract and engage audiences in new ways but they will also allow them to measure these experiences in ways they couldn’t do inside the flat screen.
#16 AR experiences anchored in space incentivize users to safely return to parks, stadiums, malls, museums and more
With the world hopefully opening back up later this year, there will be a growing focus on AR consumer experiences that encourage people to safely return to places. Shared, persistent, AR experiences will be anchored in parks, stadiums, museums, malls and more– showcasing what has been referred to as “”the real world metaverse””. These contextual experiences will make greater use of the environment, people and things at the location they take place in which will make them feel more rooted in reality and therefore more meaningful and real.
The scarcity of location-based AR experiences, where a user has to be at a certain place and even potentially at a certain time to experience it, both strengthens the need to be at a place and increases its value in much the same way as going to a concert to see a particular band or visit a museum to see a touring exhibition. This mechanic will be extremely powerful for brands and organizations to drive traffic to their establishments.
#17 Scalable AR solutions transform e-commerce across a wide cross-section of industries 2022 will see a significant adoption of AR for e-commerce as more retailers integrate AR as part of their online retail offering. The spatialization of e-commerce will be driven by the digital transformation brought on by the pandemic, a growing demand for immersive experiences from customers, and a desire to benefit from the ROI many retailers already using AR are reporting.
The rise in AR-commerce this year will also be facilitated by development tools which enable a scalable, production-grade commerce solution. This includes integrating with APIs from existing systems such content management systems, billing systems and other ERP solutions which a retailer is already using online.
While beauty, art and furniture are the most active industries using AR in commerce today, 2022 will see a wider cross-section of industries adopt this technology including fashion for virtual try-on and consumer technology for virtual try-out. While most of the activity will be spatializing existing e-commerce sites with 3D/AR content, some brands will also begin to create spatial-first stores, either in existing virtual worlds or on their own.
#18 The avatar wars heat up as consumers choose to embody their online identity with digital characters and look for ways to personalize them
The avatar wars have begun. The race to have you create and invest in a digital self is already underway with tech giants such as Apple, Meta, Snapchat, TikTok, Microsoft, Roblox and Epic Games (Fornite) all having their own avatar systems.
Your online identity has always been important but embodying it with an avatar and using this to represent you online and in virtual spaces and experiences will be a serious trend in 2022, especially as more metaverse experiences become available for us to use them in.
The success of avatar systems will rely on the avatar design and the ecosystem, where it can be supported and the ecosystem around it to give you things to do with your avatar including experiences, new apparel and accessories. A key component is the cross-platform capability as the more places you can bring your digital self the stronger your relationship is with this avatar. Here startup, Ready Player Me, has an advantage with its avatar system which is touted as “the passport to the metaverse”. But Snap’s Bitmoji SDK for Games and even Meta’s recent update to unify its avatar system across its own apps suggest larger players are also moving in this direction.
This year will see a growing importance to create a digital double and will offer you many things to do with it. This will in turn cause many to spend money on goods and experiences for their digital self – including AR experiences. This last point unlocks a virtual economy which many fashion brands (such as Gucci and Ralph Lauren) are already benefiting from. Keep an eye on the use of NFT PFPs, the return of Second Life, avatar activity in VR and the growing number of 3D/AR experiences and goods available for your digital self to make use of this year.
#19 AR brings virtual goods and NFTs into the physical world giving them value outside of the digital world
We saw a virtual economy surge in 2021 thanks to the rise of NFTs (or non-fungible tokens) which reached $27 billion sales in the first 10 months according to Chainalysis. Transactions were made for a variety of virtual goods including digital art and collectibles, virtual real estate and digital fashion. While these purchases were made for use in the digital world, AR can be used to give these virtual goods tangibility and use in the physical world. Keep an eye out this year for the use of AR to bring your NFT into the real world whether that is to place your NFT on your wall or to bring your NFT into your world space for you to take selfies and interact with.
AR is also being used as an NFT feature to entice collectors. 3D and AR is on many NFT collectible roadmaps, acting both as a differentiator to help collections compete in a now crowded market, and as a way to create further minting opportunities and continued value for an existing community of collectors. While most NFTs look to add AR, another trend to watch are AR-first NFT collections. A great example of this is Jadu (pictured above) which brought to life 20,000 unique 3D NFT characters, called Meebits created by Larva Labs, as playable characters.
AR is also an essential requirement to experience digital-only fashion such as virtual apparel from digital fashion houses The Fabricant or DressX. Unlike costumes and clothing for avatars, this virtual apparel is sold for your own personal use but you need augmented reality for you to wear and share it. In some cases, this could be activated by real world apparel such as hoodies, hats and t-shirts featuring QR codes and AR image targets. Like AR-enabled NFTs, expect to see other virtual goods such as digital-first fashion on the rise this year.
#20 AR continues to transform remote work solutions by enhancing and enabling meetings and collaboration
Full or hybrid remote work has become the new normal for many organizations. This has increased demand for solutions which can keep teams connected and productive. While existing technologies may be sufficient in helping us do work, digital tools have yet to replicate the in-person connection, team building and collaboration that occurs when in the office. As the common ingredient here is being present in a space together, spatial computing technologies (AR/VR/3D) are well suited to meet this need.
2022 will see increased adoption of cross-platform meeting and collaboration software which make use of devices like Meta Quest and Microsoft HoloLens to bring people together and help them feel more present. Meta’s Horizon Workrooms is a virtual reality solution on Quest but uses the device’s AR passthrough to bring a user’s keyboard and mouse into the simulated environment with support for outside video conferencing solutions like Zoom. While Microsoft’s cross-platform mixed realty collaborative platform, Mesh, works across AR, VR, mobile and PCs. Mesh initially leverages an avatar system to create a sense of presence during virtual meetings but has plans to roll out what it calls “Holoportation” which will allow people to participate as themselves in virtual spaces.
AR can also help us feel more present on 2D video conferencing calls by removing the discomfort and distraction felt by many from being on video. Video filters and backgrounds are just the start in using AR to modify your look and environment. This year I expect major video conferencing solutions will give users even more AR tools to modify their video feed, including the use of avatars in lieu of our real world selves, in an effort to make users feel more comfortable and present on video calls.
#21 Military, manufacturing and healthcare continue to be key targets for optical see-through AR glasses
Smartglasses have been busy at work for a number of years now. While the majority of these rollouts are using monocular heads-up displays from Google, RealWear or Vuzix enabling what is often called “assisted reality”, some industries are also using more robust mixed reality glasses from Microsoft and Magic Leap to upskill their team. The most active of these industries are military, manufacturing and healthcare.
Formally a consumer-play, Magic Leap is now targeting the enterprise. Peggy Johnson, Magic Leap’s new CEO summed up the reason nicely in a Bloomberg interview. It’s easiest to make inroads with “industries that are used to wearing something on their eyes.” Magic Leap has already lined up companies as part of its health technology early access program including heart-mapping startup SentiAR and neurotech business SyncThink to ready solutions for medical customers.
AR healthcare solutions providers are companies to watch this year. Apprentice.io announced its raise of $100M in early January. The AR software solution targeted at the pharmaceutical industry has been quite active in facilitating the creation of COVID-19 vaccines. According to Apprentice.io, it has helped facilitate manufacturing of 370 million vaccine doses with its solution to date.
Military and manufacturing are two other industries both Microsoft and Magic Leap are targeting. According to Microsoft’s Alex Kipman, “HoloLens is currently targeting first-line workers, who need their hands free, and that 60% of Fortune 500 companies are trialing or using Mixed reality, while 90% of Fortune 500 companies with more than 500 people have adopted it.” Microsoft won a massive $22 billion deal with the military for use of its HoloLens but it was delayed due to operational testing which pushed the rollout date to September 2022.
Ethics & Human Impact
#22 As AR gets more contextual, concerns around privacy and safety become an even greater priority to address
Safety and trust are paramount for all tech solutions, but are especially key for AR and AI where computers sense and edit the world around us. As AR gets more contextual, using more spatial data to root itself in the people, places and things in the scene, the need for frameworks, regulations and social contracts become an even greater priority.
Organizations like XRSI are leading the charge in proactively anticipating and addressing the privacy, safety and societal concerns of AR and VR technologies. As this technology is still nascent, most of the work in this field is to drive awareness and discourse and establish working groups and frameworks. As the adoption of these technologies proliferates and we get closer to the metaverse, it will become increasingly important for these efforts to move from awareness to activation where in working with commercial parties and government parties regulations and guidelines are instituted to ensure the privacy, security, and ethics are in place for the immersive scenarios.